PDF | On Dec 31, , Paul E. Hodges and others published The Triumph of the City: How our Greatest Invention Makes us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier. PDF | On Mar 1, , David Reiss and others published Review: Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter. Why are very poor countries urbanizing so rapidly, when the west didn't urbanize until they were much richer? • Is this urbanization at such low income levels.
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nferosexmaufu.tk: Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier (): Edward Glaeser. Read "Triumph of the City How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier" by Edward Glaeser available from Rakuten. Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier – By Edward Glaeser.
In the modern age, nearly all cities in developed countries and many cities in developing countries are able to provide these, while poor and rural villages may not be so lucky.
Governments primary obligation is to its people, and these are the most basic needs of allif these fundamental needs are not met, then citizens will leave for places where they will be. As for pollution, Glaeser reveals some interesting statistics that suggest cities are in fact far Copyright Max Good and Sybil Derrible. As now commonly accepted and initially expressed by Newman and Kenworthy , denser and more compact cities tend to require less energy for transportation i.
Meanwhile, the majority of those in the suburbs must cover great distances by car. One point of contention is Glaesers claim that cities do not make people poor, but rather that they attract poor people p. From this, he suggests that cities are therefore seen as a land of opportunity for the poor, a place where they can make a living and rise up out of poverty.
While this assertion is undoubtedly true in some cases, especially in developing countries with high urbanization rates World Bank , the cycle of poverty in the US is a well-known issue, where many have been living in a state of poverty for several generations. As residents of Chicago, the authors of this review can personally attest to this phenonemon, which also appears in the U.
Census Bureau Glaeser does make a salient point, however, which is that it is almost always better to be poor in a city than in a rural area. Aside from the issues already mentioned that contribute to making a city bad, the biggest signs of a bad city are urban sprawl from an environmental standpoint , and urban exodus from an economic standpoint. Two real-world examples of this are Houston and Detroit.
From an economic standpoint, Houston is quite successful; it is growing, it has low unemployment rates, and it has aordable housing p. Nevertheless, the local government has greatly encouraged home ownership, which in this context pushes Houstonians to move to the suburbs by the millions , thus massively increasing the number of cars and the miles driven on Houstons highways.
Detroit, on the other hand, has been rapidly declining to the point of having to declare bankruptcy. Its population sits at around half of what it was at its peak decades ago.
Detroits housing is also quite aordable, but for a very dierent reason, i. Glaeser recounts how Detroits urban exodus is due to one bad governmental decision aer another, going all the way back to the beginning of the mass-produced automobile industry. Glaeser further explains that while Fords innovations were hugely successful for Detroit and America at the time, the incentive to bring. Detroit had all its eggs in one basket and once outside competition showed up, there were no other sectors to pick up the slack.
Local government then naively followed the build it and they will come mantra, and wasted millions of dollars on ineective public projects like the People Mover, which have done nothing but set the city back. Paris and New York seem like shining examples of what a city should be, but they share one serious problem: excessive costs of living Economist Intelligence Unit In their most desirable neighborhoods, development is severely regulated.
In similar fashion, coastal California has inadvertently pushed inhabitants toward more sprawled areas by imposing strict regulations on new construction and by constantly designating new land as protected p. He has published influential studies on inequality. His work with David Cutler of Harvard identified harmful effects of segregation on black youth in terms of wages, joblessness, education attainment, and likelihood of teen pregnancy.
They found that the effect of segregation was so harmful to blacks that if black youth lived in perfectly integrated metropolitan areas, their success would be no different from white youth on three of four measures and only slightly different on the fourth. Because cities don't make people poor. Cities attract poor people. They attract poor people because they deliver things that people need most of all—economic opportunity.
Differing attitudes towards those less fortunate partially explain differences in the redistribution of income from rich to poor. But they conclude that racial diversity in the United States, with the dominant group being white and the poor mainly non-white, led to resistance to reduce inequality in the United States through redistribution.
Surprisingly the United States political structures are centuries old and remain much more conservative than their European counterparts as the latter have undergone much political change. For example, he and colleague Denise DiPasquale found that homeowners are more engaged citizens than renters. In recent years, Glaeser has argued that human capital explains much of the variation in urban and metropolitan level prosperity.
Unlike many pundits and commentators, who attribute skyrocketing housing prices to a housing bubble created by Alan Greenspan's monetary policies , Glaeser pointed out that the increase in housing prices was not uniform throughout the country Glaeser and Gyourko Compounded with strict zoning laws the supply of new housing in these cities was seriously disrupted. Real estate markets were thus unable to accommodate increases in demand, and housing prices skyrocketed.
Poverty and crime rates are higher in cities than in suburbs. Triumph of the City Key Idea 1: Cities are the engines of human progress.
We think and create better when surrounded by our peers. Whether Athenian thinkers creating the foundation for classical philosophy or Florentine artists ushering in the Renaissance, throughout history, cities have been hotbeds of creativity and progress. What makes cities so conducive to visionary thinking? Cities bring people together, enabling collaboration and thus the spread of knowledge. This lively process often produces unexpected and paradigm-shifting creations.
Cities are such rich sources of inspiration that today, even though technology helps us exchange ideas and information regardless of our location, many of us still choose to cluster in dense cities. Consider Silicon Valley: Even though the tech industry is highly connected through the internet, programmers and inventors still want to be in the same physical location as their peers. Ultimately, human progress in cities relies on three things: small firms, smart people and global connectedness.
Silicon Valley embodies this kind of environment, as did industrial Detroit. In the mid-twentieth century, it seemed there was a genius and a start-up on every street corner — think of Henry Ford, the Dodge brothers, Detroit Electric, General Motors — each obsessed with creating the next automobile innovation.
In addition to all this human capital, Detroit was also connected to the outside world via a major railroad and a waterway. These connections not only enabled the constant flow of goods to the city, but also brought a stream of eager entrepreneurs. Triumph of the City Key Idea 2: Cities provide a platform for vibrant creative communities, and make theater tickets cheaper, too.
As London expanded, it attracted many wandering theater groups. This community also produced many great playwrights such as Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson and William Shakespeare himself.
After all, the city was chock-full of potential customers, thus allowing cultural institutions to cover their overhead costs. This is crucial, because making theater is very expensive, requiring a large stage, special lighting, sound equipment, good actors and more. Cities offer large audiences that can share these fixed costs, ultimately making tickets more affordable and accessible to everyone. This same principle also applies to cinemas, restaurants, opera houses, museums and other establishments, ultimately leading to greater diversity and more specialized products in nearly every aspect of life and leisure.
Just consider all the different kinds of food you can eat in a city! In New York City alone, you can choose between four different kinds of Indian cuisine in the span of just three city blocks. So as you can see, living in a city is more fun than living in the countryside.
Triumph of the City Key Idea 3: Densely packed cities are far better for the environment than is the sprawl of suburbs. When it comes to global warming and carbon emissions, living in a city is the environmentally responsible choice, for two main reasons. For one, city dwellers drive less. Public transportation is inexpensive and far reaching, and parking is often scarce, so city people opt for the bus rather than a traffic jam.
And city dwellers also use on average less energy. Small urban apartments need less electricity, heating and air conditioning than do larger suburban homes. All in all, this leads to fewer carbon emissions from a city, and thus less global warming.
But despite the environmental benefits of city life, America continues to sprawl. Today, most middle-class families in the United States live in the suburbs but commute into a city for work. This kind of lifestyle is accepted as the status quo, as American cities were originally built around cars and highways.
Historically, more money went toward building interstates than public transportation. As a consequence, studies show that the average car commute lasts 24 minutes, while the average mass transit commute takes twice as long — 48 minutes. Another factor precipitating suburban sprawl is that public policy has consistently subsidized new home developments with cheap loans. This creates another incentive for middle-class families to leave the city to build homes in the suburbs.
Triumph of the City Key Idea 4: Cities provide those suffering from poverty access to jobs and other opportunities. Cities are often associated with poverty — you might imagine the slums of Mumbai as one example. And generally speaking, poverty rates are higher in cities. In the United States for example, the urban poverty rate is